Huang Weiping: At present, the global economy is still in deep adjustment, the overall recovery is weak, the demand is sluggish, and the prospects remain unclear. The domestic economy is facing downward pressure, the total value of imports and exports is declining, but the quality and efficiency of foreign trade development has improved. Better, develop into the new normal. According to customs statistics, in the first half of 2015, Chinaâ€™s total import and export value was 11.53 trillion yuan, down 6.9% from the same period last year. Among them, exports were 6.57 trillion yuan, up 0.9%; imports were 4.96 trillion yuan, down 15.5%; trade surplus was 1.61 trillion yuan, an increase of 1.5 times.
The specific situation has the following aspects:
First, the structure of trade patterns has been continuously optimized: general trade exports have grown significantly. In the first half of the year, China's general trade import and export was 6.38 trillion yuan, down 6.3%, accounting for 55.3% of the total value of imports and exports, an increase of 0.4 percentage points over the same period last year. Among them, general trade exports increased by 6.3%, faster than the overall export growth rate of 5.4 percentage points.
Second, the diversification of trading partners has achieved remarkable results: exports to emerging markets and some countries along the â€œBelt and Roadâ€ have grown well. In the first half of the year, China's bilateral trade with the United States, ASEAN and India was 1.64 trillion yuan, 1.38 trillion yuan and 209.6 billion yuan respectively, up 4%, 1.6% and 1.1% respectively. Among them, exports to emerging markets such as ASEAN, India, Latin America and Africa increased by 9.5%, 10.7%, 3.7% and 12.9% respectively, and the total value of exports accounted for 26% of the total value of our exports, an increase of 1.9 percentage points over the same period last year. In addition, exports to countries along the â€œBelt and Roadâ€ countries such as Bangladesh, Pakistan, Israel, Saudi Arabia and Egypt exceeded 17%.
Third, the advantages of major foreign trade provinces and cities are more obvious: Guangdong and other major foreign trade provinces perform better than the overall. In the first half of the year, the import and export of Guangdong, Jiangsu, Shanghai, Zhejiang and Fujian provinces decreased by 1.8%, 3.9%, 3.3%, 2.5% and 0.5%, respectively, but the overall import and export decline was better than 6.9%. In the same period, Henan's exports increased by 19.4%, significantly higher than the overall growth rate of exports during the same period.
Fourth, the endogenous power of foreign trade has been further enhanced: the proportion of private enterprises has increased significantly. In the first half of the year, China's private enterprises import and export 4.14 trillion yuan, down 0.5%, accounting for 35.9% of our total import and export value, an increase of 2.3 percentage points over the same period of last year, indicating that China's foreign trade independent development capability is gradually increasing.
Fifth, the structure of export products continued to optimize: the export of mechanical and electrical products and traditional labor-intensive products increased, and the export growth of some high-end products was faster. In the first half of the year, China exported 3.78 trillion yuan of mechanical and electrical products, an increase of 3%, accounting for 57.6% of China's total export value in the same period. Among them, the growth rate of exports of mobile phones, rail transit equipment, metal processing machine tools, medical instruments and equipment, textile machinery and other products. Faster. In the same period, exports of textiles, clothing, luggage, footwear, toys, furniture, plastic products and other seven categories of labor-intensive products 1.34 trillion yuan, an increase of 0.7%, accounting for 20.4% of China's total exports in the same period; among them, toys, furniture The growth rate of luggage exports exceeded 10%.
Sixth, the terms of trade prices have improved markedly: the import volume of some bulk commodities has fallen, and the efficiency of foreign trade has increased. In the first half of the year, Chinaâ€™s imports of some bulk commodities continued to increase. Among them, imported crude oil was 163 million tons, up 7.5%; refined oil was 15.79 million tons, up 3.3%; soybean was 35.16 million tons, up 2.8%. In the same period, China's import prices fell by 10.9%. Among them, the prices of bulk commodities such as iron ore, crude oil, refined oil, soybeans, coal and copper fell sharply. In the first half of the year, China's export prices fell by 1.3% overall, and the decline was significantly smaller than the overall decline in import prices during the same period. From this calculation, China's trade price condition index was 110.8% in the first half of the year. That is to say, China's export of a certain number of commodities can be exchanged for 10.8% of imported goods, which means that China's trade price conditions have improved significantly and foreign trade benefits have improved. .
The above shows that in the first half of this year, China's foreign trade market diversification has made new progress, regional layout tends to be reasonable, trade conditions have improved, and trade patterns, trade entities and import and export commodity structures have been optimized. At the same time, we must also see that there are still some difficulties in the development of China's foreign trade. For example, in the first half of the year, China's bilateral trade with the EU and Japan fell by 6.8% and 10.6% respectively. The import and export of foreign-invested enterprises and state-owned enterprises decreased by 4.8% and 14% respectively. Import and export of processing trade fell by 8.6%. In addition, in June this year, China's foreign trade export leading index was 34.8, down 0.2 from May, indicating that the pressure on foreign trade exports in the next two or three months is still relatively large.
At present, we must correctly treat the new normal of foreign trade development. Facing the severe and complicated foreign trade situation, the Customs will further deepen reform, strengthen services, optimize the environment, implement a series of policies and measures for the Party Central Committee and the State Council to promote the steady growth of foreign trade, adhere to steady progress, and continuously improve the level of trade facilitation. We will make efforts to achieve steady growth and transformation and upgrading of foreign trade.
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